The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and websites, and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking, Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. Most of this activity adds time[citation needed] and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter.[citation needed] Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. Third party programs (Ad-Aware, Adblock Plus, Spybot, pop-up blockers, etc.) and particularly, the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser.[citation needed]
Colmex Pro is the leading European Regulated CFD Broker. Offering Tier 2 CFD’s, as well as Live Equities, Indices, Commodities, Futures, and Forex, Colmex Pro offers nearly every investment vehicle available on the US Stock Market to international day traders. Coupled with their partner’s educational packages and trade room access Colmex Pro offers investors the best opportunity to grow and learn how to day trade successfully. CPA up to $1000
5. Fiverr – Fiverr is a great place to make a few bucks or spend a few bucks if you need some of the services people offer. Basically, everything is $5. You either pay $5 or charge $5. They call them “gigs.” You can offer your services however you choose. If you sell art and you’re fine selling pieces for $5 each, that’s a gig. If you’re a graphic designer and you want to offer your services for $10/hour, simply offer a 30 minute gig. If they need two hours of graphic design, they pay you $20, or $10/hour by buying four gigs.
26. Services – You can offer a paid service, such as life coaching, blog coaching, goal setting or financial planning. Just be sure to investigate all the legal implications and make sure you’re not claiming to be a professional if you’re not one. With a service like this, you’re basically using your blog to sell yourself. You’ll need to convince people that you’re worth buying and then be able to back up your claims once they purchase your service.

Wealthy Affiliate is also very strict on spam, which in the end is a GOOD thing, but I have to be careful sometimes about promoting my sites or referencing them. Sometimes I do have valuable information on my site that I think could help people during live chat sessions or Q&A’s, but I don’t share because I don’t want it to look like I’m spamming. They do allow people to promote their sites in certain areas, but in order to keep the community from filling up with self-promotion spam, there are times when it is best not to share certain information from outside sources, especially my own sites.

Hi Jamie, awesome content that is very helpful esp with the resources, links and the rich discussions. Want to start e-commerce and blog for money…selling others products, want to go full on with this, tired of the daily routine crunch working for others. I live in a developing country (PNG) that has high internet costs (work still in progress with getting rates down…) so will see how I go with your posts. Any advise? Don’t have a website yet, have to build one I guess….


So an effective affiliate marketing program requires some forethought. The terms and conditions have to be tight, especially if the contract agreement is to pay for traffic rather than sales. The potential for fraud in affiliate marketing is a possibility. Unscrupulous affiliates can squat on domain names with misspellings and get a commission for the redirect; they can populate online registration forms with fake or stolen information; they can purchase adwords on search terms the company already ranks high on, and so on. Even if the terms and conditions are clear, an affiliate marketing program requires that someone be monitoring affiliates and enforcing the rules. In exchange for that effort, however, a company can access motivated, creative people to help sell their product or services to the world.
Complete errands or tasks for the elderly. Older people often need help with buying groceries, cleaning their home, performing home maintenance, and paying bills. To find clients, contact your local community center or church to find out if anyone needs help. Additionally, you might post an ad in your local classifieds or talk to people you know to find out if they know someone who needs help.[5]
I was a skeptic for years! I researched every which way to make money online, and could not find a program that interested me or I thought would work for me. I stumbled upon WA by accident, and it had something that others didn’t…A training platform. I really wanted to LEARN how to create a business online, and learn by trial and error yet have the support of a community to help guide me if I got lost. 
The thing that I really like about WA is that even though I feel I have some good experience now (not an expert yet!), I realize that I can get help from someone with more skills and knowledge than I have at any time. There are experts within WA, many with MUCH more experience than I have that I lean on for support and to advance my own personal skills.
Tradedoubler was founded in 1999 by two young Swedish entrepreneurs. They have offices in the UK and multiple countries throughout Europe, including Sweden, Germany, France, Poland and Spain. Their focus has always been to provide smarter results for both clients and affiliates through technology. In 18 years, they’ve amassed an army of 180,000 active publishers, connecting them to over 2,000 merchants in Europe and the UK. Many of these merchants are household names.
Education occurs most often in "real life" by becoming involved and learning the details as time progresses. Although there are several books on the topic, some so-called "how-to" or "silver bullet" books instruct readers to manipulate holes in the Google algorithm, which can quickly become out of date,[41] or suggest strategies no longer endorsed or permitted by advertisers.[42]
Now most affiliate programs have strict terms and conditions on how the lead is to be generated. There are also certain methods that are outright banned, such as installing adware or spyware that redirect all search queries for a product to an affiliate's page. Some affiliate marketing programs go as far as to lay out how a product or service is to be discussed in the content before an affiliate link can be validated.
The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and websites, and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking, Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. Most of this activity adds time[citation needed] and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter.[citation needed] Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. Third party programs (Ad-Aware, Adblock Plus, Spybot, pop-up blockers, etc.) and particularly, the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser.[citation needed]
People are turning to audio and visuals when it comes to technical subjects. However, you should consider doing an ebook first and turning it into an audiobook through a resource like Audible's ACX platform. You can hire a producer either through a royalty share program, so you don't have to shell out upfront cash, or you can do a pay-per-hour hire as well.
You are seeing positive stuff online, because Wealthy Affiliate is the industry leader and has been for some time. There are over 50,000 positive reviews online last time I checked, by independent bloggers and authorities within the affiliate marketing world. There is a reason that they have been in business since 2005 and continue to grow, and evolve their business for their customers. A truly caring company.
Before I talk about some of the methods for making money online, I wanted to address the role of pain versus pleasure. Every decision that we make in life is weighed on a pain-versus-pleasure scale. We will always do more to avoid pain than we will to gain pleasure, plain and simple. However, this is also what holds us back from succeeding in any endeavor.
You may find the odd negative review out there from a “competitor” or someone promoting a competing product. That happens. There are also many frustrated business owners in the industry that are offering low quality products, that get frustrated that they cannot compete with the services offer at Wealthy Affiliate. What they offer within their premium membership for $359 per year, there are companies charging $10,000’s for FAR LESS.
This is a fantastic article and it really has given me help. I want to go to this thing in the summer called Creation Fest and it has music and speackers to celebrate God and it costs a lot! I was looking for help and I found this. $100+ seems easy at first but then your stuck when your my age. Thanks a whole bunch and I will probably come back again.
Really good article with some great tips. Affiliate marketing has the potential to earn lots of money and I'm hoping I can make it happen. I have tried the matched betting and it DEFINITELY works. The one thing I would say is that you need to check that any bets have been accepted by the bookmaker. I have had on occasion bets which look like they have been accepted but don't register in my account. Always go into your account and check outstanding bets or your bet history.
StudioPress itself is somewhat of a niche product as it is targeted to existing WordPress users who found setting up and managing a WordPress site too difficult or time-consuming. StudioPress prides itself on being easy to use, but their main claim to fame is that their hosted websites are “faster and more secure” than other WordPress hosting companies as well as using the “Genesis framework” which is supposedly more SEO friendly than other WordPress builds.
1. Commerce: Two parties are affiliates if either party has the power to control the other, or a third party controls or has the power to control the both. Affiliation also exists in (1) in interlocking directorates or ownership, (2) in identity of interests among members of a family and, (3) where employees, equipment, and/or facilities, are shared. Affiliates are subject to greater than normal legal prohibitions and requirements to guard against insider trading. See also subsidiary.
JVZoo lets you both host and create landing pages on their own website, so it’s far better suited for professional marketers who want to flood the internet with offers, many of them for courses to make money. You don’t need your own website to participate in JVZoo, but you will need to know how to drive traffic to a landing or squeeze page in order to profit from being a JVZoo affiliate.

Adding to that, most of the country’s highest-ranked teaching and research hospitals are affiliated with M.D. schools—including the 20 best in the nation as rated by U.S. News & World Report. — Carolyn L. Todd, SELF, "What Is a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, and Should You See One?," 6 Feb. 2019 He has been affiliated with churches in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, Lincoln Heights, Ohio, and Baltimore, Maryland, before being elected the bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina. — Elizabeth Angell, Town & Country, "Who Is Bishop Michael Curry?," 5 Dec. 2018 Many of the trainers along your journey are affiliated with famed series villains Team Rocket, who enjoy a decidedly Saturday Morning Cartoon flavor in their cheesy shouts against you. — Sam Machkovech, Ars Technica, "Pokemon Let’s Go: Well, I guess my adult ass is going to collect them all," 16 Nov. 2018 SpaceX is not affiliated with any of the startups currently working to build a real hyperloop, but the super-fast transportation system is still close to Musk’s heart. — Andrew J. Hawkins, The Verge, "WARR Hyperloop pod hits 284 mph to win SpaceX competition," 23 July 2018 This giveaway is not affiliated with/supported by Kroger. — Susan Tompor, Detroit Free Press, "Amazon Prime Day: Gift cards, coupons and other scams to watch for," 14 July 2018 Most of the 20 teams do not currently use their full quota of 17 non-homegrown players, a status which means they have not been affiliated to an English or Welsh club for three complete seasons or 36 months before their 21st birthday. — Rob Harris, The Seattle Times, "Post-Brexit bid to curb foreign player imports splits soccer," 21 Nov. 2018 Evangelical pastor Silas Malafaia said on Twitter that de Oliveira was once affiliated with the left-wing Socialism and Liberty Party, which like most of Brazil's political parties criticized the attack and called for a thorough investigation. — Fox News, "Suspect in Brazil candidate stabbing moved to new prison," 8 Sep. 2018 The Daily Emerald reported he was affiliated with the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity. — The Oregonian/oregonlive, OregonLive.com, "University of Oregon student, 21, found dead at Shasta Lake," 19 May 2018
Understand how a niche website works. A niche website focuses on very targeted, specific information. The content must be specific, useful and interesting to your target audience. Successful niche websites get anywhere from 1,000 to 10,000 visitors per month.[5] You build content on a particular keyword, and you make passive income with Google Adsense or through affiliate links.[6]
I am 17 in May and currently studying year 12. I don’t have a job though have tried a couple times. Given i have exams coming up i can’t manage a normal job but need some source of income – even if its small. I’m not all that technical so a lot of the things up there don’t work. I have strong english skills, love working with kids. I like sport, , languages animals and can cook. I have tried to get babysitting but haven’t had much luck so far. 

Research selling prices of items similar to yours. Look up completed sales or current listings of items similar to yours. Find the high- and low-end prices, and price your object around the median price level. If you want your item to sell quickly, price it at the low end. The condition of the item also affects the price. Items in poorer condition should be priced at the lower end. Also, consider how many listings there already are of items similar to yours. If many similar items will be competing with yours, you may have to set the price lower to get the sale.[28]
Affiliate marketing currently lacks industry standards for training and certification. There are some training courses and seminars that result in certifications; however, the acceptance of such certifications is mostly due to the reputation of the individual or company issuing the certification. Affiliate marketing is not commonly taught in universities, and only a few college instructors work with Internet marketers to introduce the subject to students majoring in marketing.[41]
I am 17 in May and currently studying year 12. I don’t have a job though have tried a couple times. Given i have exams coming up i can’t manage a normal job but need some source of income – even if its small. I’m not all that technical so a lot of the things up there don’t work. I have strong english skills, love working with kids. I like sport, , languages animals and can cook. I have tried to get babysitting but haven’t had much luck so far.
If you do decide to promote Wealthy Affiliate, there are additional perks. For example, anyone who sells 299 subscriptions from January to December gets invited to the Wealthy Affiliate Super Affiliate Conference. There is no way to get into this conference unless you make 299 sales. Absolutely everything is paid for from the flight to the hotel room to entertainment and AMAZING food. Here’s a quick video I made showing some of the highlights.

A multinational company may set up affiliates to break into international markets while protecting the parent company's name in case the affiliate fails or the parent company is not viewed favorably due to its foreign origin. Understanding the differences between affiliates and other company arrangements is important in covering debts and other legal obligations.

2. As an affiliate marketer, there are 100’s of millions of products and services you can promote in exchange for a commission. You sign up for what are called “affiliate programs” and once you do that, you are given special links for that company that are unique to you. When you send people to one of those links (through your website, social media, email, or otherwise) and they buy something, you get a % commission. For example, if you sign up to Amazons affiliate program, you can promote any product on their website and earn 6% commissions. Commissions range from 5-75% typically, depending on the program.


Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his or her website and display it to the page visitors in order to receive a commission. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website.
For example, when I first started back in 2009, I learned from a service called Solo Build It. I knew absolutely nothing about building an online business, let alone what “affiliate marketing” even meant. However, they changed my life and taught me how to build money-making websites online, which is what I’ve been doing with my life ever since. This is another great service to consider and you can read my review of Solo Build It here.
If you're running on fumes, financially speaking, but you have some money coming your way soon, consider pawning something of value to borrow fast cash. Of course, to get those items back you'll need to pay back the loan with interest. If you don't pay it back in time, that you'll lose the item. If it's really something that has a lot of intrinsic value to you, don't do it. But if it's something that doesn't, you can certainly consider it depending on your situation.
JVZoo lets you both host and create landing pages on their own website, so it’s far better suited for professional marketers who want to flood the internet with offers, many of them for courses to make money. You don’t need your own website to participate in JVZoo, but you will need to know how to drive traffic to a landing or squeeze page in order to profit from being a JVZoo affiliate.

Products are now put in a category. The commission will be based on the category each product has been placed in whether or not the category is correct. For instance, I had a sale for a child riding toy tractor. Instead of it being in toys category which would have only earned me 3%, it was actually placed in lawn and garden category which I then actually earned 8% instead.
LinkConnector imposes a very rigorous and lengthy screening process, so you’ll need to prove that you have a high-quality website and established audience before being accepted. Despite its somewhat schizophrenic approach, LinkConnector does have some very happy long-term affiliates. And their “naked links” allow for direct connection to the merchant website without having to be rerouted via LinkConnector, which will give your website an SEO boost.
With possibly the most transparent affiliate network online, we give affiliates access to stats no other program dare, including earning data, conversion stats, demographic information and seasonality trends. With ethics and consumer protection being high on the agenda, you can rest assured when working with MoreNiche you are working with an honest, trustworthy and transparent company.

Affiliate marketing overlaps with other Internet marketing methods to some degree, because affiliates often use regular advertising methods. Those methods include organic search engine optimization (SEO), paid search engine marketing (PPC – Pay Per Click), e-mail marketing, content marketing, and (in some sense) display advertising. On the other hand, affiliates sometimes use less orthodox techniques, such as publishing reviews of products or services offered by a partner.[citation needed]


No matter what method you choose to make money online, understand that you might be able to make some money fast, but for the sizable returns, you'll need significant sweat equity. However, a year from now, you'll be happy you started today. Remember, time is far more valuable than money. Focus on creating passive income streams that will free up your time so that you can quit the rat race and focus on the things that matter. 
Etsy: While Etsy's popularity has declined recently, it's still a great resource for selling handmade items online. No need for complex ecommerce sites or merchant accounts or any sort of automation. The company takes a commission of every sale and charges a small listing fee per item. But many still use Etsy as their primary source of income. The best part is that you can also sell digital products on here such as poster designs. 

JVZoo was founded in 2011 and has since rocketed to near the top as one of the most popular affiliate programs out there. JVZoo is unusual in that there are no upfront costs for either publishers or merchants (advertisers). JVZoo’s income is exclusively from charging fees (to both the merchant and the affiliate) after a sale has been made. It is also unusual in that it pays commissions “instantly” via PayPal rather than once a week/fortnight/month like other affiliate programs.


Now most affiliate programs have strict terms and conditions on how the lead is to be generated. There are also certain methods that are outright banned, such as installing adware or spyware that redirect all search queries for a product to an affiliate's page. Some affiliate marketing programs go as far as to lay out how a product or service is to be discussed in the content before an affiliate link can be validated.
Webinars are quite possibly one of the most potent ways you can make an exorbitant amount of money online. You'll need an audience to train and you'll need to know what you're talking about. Of course, this usually requires having a website and some semblance of an online presence. However, people can still do webinars without all of that. For example, you might have a sizable social media following and you train them every week on something to do with social media. But you will need a product to embed and sell at some point. Don't worry about it in the beginning. In my experience, the best webinar platform out there is GoToWebinar. 
There’s a good reason why ClickBank is still a strong contender, however it does tend to focus more on digital products which may be of questionable quality. Yes, the review process is more professional these days, but it’s still primarily focused on selling digital products, especially “how to make money” courses and the like. That being said, there are some genuinely high-quality products on offer, and few affiliate programs are bigger than ClickBank, especially in selling (primarily digital) books.

My tip: Have one main credit card. Have a second one that you use for necessities – such as groceries or gas – that offers rewards for those purchases (a lot of cards do) and set the second one on auto-pay. You should be able to pay off a smaller amount on auto-pay if it is a necessity. If you think you cannot, then you may need to cut down a lot on expenses.

In effect, VigLink works as the middleman between a publisher (blogger) and merchants by scanning the publisher’s content and automatically creating links to publishers that are chosen “in real time” based on their payout/conversation rates. This makes VigLink a very hands-off affiliate program for publishers who prefer to focus on content instead of managing their affiliate links.
SkimLinks works very similarly to VigLinks in that it is designed for bloggers who don’t want to do a lot of hands-on work to participate in an affiliate program. SkimLinks also works much like VigLinks in that it uses a plugin or script to create dynamic links in your content to send visitors to higher paying offers from merchants. SkimLinks claims to work with over 24,000 merchants/advertisers.
Really good article with some great tips. Affiliate marketing has the potential to earn lots of money and I'm hoping I can make it happen. I have tried the matched betting and it DEFINITELY works. The one thing I would say is that you need to check that any bets have been accepted by the bookmaker. I have had on occasion bets which look like they have been accepted but don't register in my account. Always go into your account and check outstanding bets or your bet history.
Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates, thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. Eventually, affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission Junction/beFree and Performics,[35] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,[36] and ShareASale's complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[37] Regardless of the progress made, adware continues to be an issue, as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20, 2007.[38]
Commercial use requires 'releases' - editorial use doesn't. Stock photos can be sold for commercial (eg, marketing) or editorial (ie, journalistic) use. You'll have more opportunities to make cash if your photos are available for both, but photos containing people or property (including branding and logos) need signed releases to be sold commercially.
Research selling prices of items similar to yours. Look up completed sales or current listings of items similar to yours. Find the high- and low-end prices, and price your object around the median price level. If you want your item to sell quickly, price it at the low end. The condition of the item also affects the price. Items in poorer condition should be priced at the lower end. Also, consider how many listings there already are of items similar to yours. If many similar items will be competing with yours, you may have to set the price lower to get the sale.[28]
Web Hosting Package - Having a website is necessary if you want to earn money online. Those who tell you that you don't need a site are either lying to you, or they are living in the past. Getting a website up and running (domain name and web host - see definition) requires extra cost (web hosting service typically cost $5 to $20 or more per month). As a premium member, you can host 20 domain names without paying an additional fee.
Check with your local bank to see if they're giving away cash bonuses for opening up accounts. Banks run promotions like this all the time, so grab some real cash quickly if you're in need. It won't break the bank (no pun intended) but it will give you a quick $50 or $100 -- maybe even more -- when you really need it. You might need to deposit a minimum amount of cash (usually in the thousands) in order to qualify for these types of accounts (but not always).
If you want the full story, you can check out my about me page (it’s a pretty cool story if I may say so myself). The short version is that I got started with affiliate marketing back in 2009 and was able to go full-time in 2011. I now own more than a dozen websites in several different niche industries. You can see a listing of most of my sites at RogersConcepts.com.
If you do decide to promote Wealthy Affiliate, there are additional perks. For example, anyone who sells 299 subscriptions from January to December gets invited to the Wealthy Affiliate Super Affiliate Conference. There is no way to get into this conference unless you make 299 sales. Absolutely everything is paid for from the flight to the hotel room to entertainment and AMAZING food. Here’s a quick video I made showing some of the highlights.
You are in the right Place if you join Wealthy Affiliate a lot of Education on all thing about the internet Business, it’s the place to be. It’s really cheap at $49 dollars a month. That a good price for Education. the only thing cheaper is my $36 a month with help, not a lot Education. If you know it. It’s the right place to be for you on price. Even I am a Wealthy Affiliate Customer, I watch and learn what the people are doing and how they are a thing for my advantage, on the Internet. Remember it’s about the of your niche something that you are very passionate about or taste It’s – it in love with it, Most of all when you talk about it, It rolls right out of your mouth. If you have the love for making money, you can do it. You do not need employees, a building. Just your house with Computer.
My name is Jamie Spencer and I have spent the past 5 years building money making blogs. After growing tired of the 9-5, commuting and never seeing my family I decided that I wanted to make some changes and launched my first blog. Since then I have launched lots of successful niche blogs and after selling my survivalist blog I decided to teach other people how to do the same.
28. Subscription – If you think of something valuable (newsletter, online magazine, etc.) that you can consistently offer on a certain basis (weekly, monthly, etc.), you may want to offer a subscription service. This could be a fee charged each time your product is sent out or on a monthly basis. Either way, this has to be something that your customers can only get by subscribing to your website. 

If you’re thinking about working with an affiliate marketing network, the world’s most popular marketplace can be a great place to start. We’ll cover how to sign up and start picking and promoting Amazon products, as well as strategies for success—the must-dos and must-don’ts that go into making Amazon a key piece of your affiliate marketing stable.
With possibly the most transparent affiliate network online, we give affiliates access to stats no other program dare, including earning data, conversion stats, demographic information and seasonality trends. With ethics and consumer protection being high on the agenda, you can rest assured when working with MoreNiche you are working with an honest, trustworthy and transparent company.
High-ticket consulting or coaching: You could sell your own high-ticket consulting or coaching products from your website. You'll still need a website, merchant account, sales funnel, lead magnet and many other items. But you can easily earn a substantial amount of money from each individual customer, making it well worth the arduous setup required. 
6. IZEA – IZEA works in addition to a blog or on its own. You get paid to blog, tweet, take photos and take videos. The pay is mostly based on your following, so if you want to make money with your tweets, you’ll need to grow you Twitter following.  Likewise, if you want to make money with blogs, you’ll need substantial blog traffic (more on blogging below).
Etsy: While Etsy's popularity has declined recently, it's still a great resource for selling handmade items online. No need for complex ecommerce sites or merchant accounts or any sort of automation. The company takes a commission of every sale and charges a small listing fee per item. But many still use Etsy as their primary source of income. The best part is that you can also sell digital products on here such as poster designs. 
Some merchants run their own (in-house) affiliate programs using dedicated software, while others use third-party intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates. There are two different types of affiliate management methods used by merchants: standalone software or hosted services, typically called affiliate networks. Payouts to affiliates or publishers can be made by the networks on behalf of the merchant, by the network, consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself. 
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